what are the 7 warfighting functions

what are the 7 warfighting functions

what are the 7 warfighting functions

To illustrate how the MIE multiplier might augment the guerrillas effectiveness lets take a senior Haqqani Network (HN) commander who has designs on attacking a position in or near Khost, Paktia AF. I would argue that we had all the understanding concerning the human factor by 2006 in literally hundreds of intelligence reports and interrogation reports---the abject failure was not on the SF side as the JSOC targeting against FF and AQI gave the CF a chance to focus their attention on the actual Sunni/Shia insurgent groups---the abject failure was the simple fact that up to even 2010 no deploying BCT fully "understood" what they were "seeing" as no one took the time inside CF to process the sheer amount of data available into a coherent training program. When COL Chamberlin ordered a bayonet charge from the defense he was banking on the fact that it would cause confusion in the enemy conducting the charge. Also see his book: Wrong Turn: America's Deadly Embrace of Counterinsurgency. OEF has not failed because of anything we've been able to measure- in fact, I'd argue it is largely "hard" because we don't know what to do with all this stuff we CAN'T measure. Destroy the enemys physical ability to fight and they must surrender. Administrative movement is related to the Sustaining WFF. [xxvi] The tactical level (young NCOs and officers) seems in my experience to have largely remained mission-focused and results oriented. Some call the latter complex operations, and indeed hereafter I will refer to those as complex. In order to be effective when dealing with things like social influence,[xxxii] the requirements are literally something that SOF has been getting further away from being able to do since at least 1987, but especially since 2003. The human domain![vi] This conversation happened, supposedly, in the context of a discussion about the Armys Seventh Warfighting Function (WfF), which as a concept is still being worked, but would add a function to the Armys list of those six things it must now do to theoretically maximize combat power. [xxviii] USASOC, ARSOF 2022, http://www.specialoperations.org/ARSOF2022_vFINAL%5B1%5D.pdf. In the dynamic environment of LSCO, self-reliance and aggressive action are key. Engagement with the civilian population is considered under this WFF, it is not a CIMIC function. IO is not a discrete, stand alone capability but is the integrated, coordinated, and synchronized operational application of all information-related capabilities (IRCs) 5, both organic and non-1 Marine Corps Doctrinal Publication (MCDP) 1, Warfighting, 20 June . Before falling to the Spanish in 152115211521, the Aztecs left several permanent contributions to history and to the explorers of the New World: chocolate, derived from indigenous cacao beans; tomatoes, potatoes, and numerous other vegetables that have long become staples to the rest of the world; and, as testament to the artisans among the Aztecs, an accurate, 242424-ton limestone calendar that took more than fifty years to construct. I believe that SOF, or at least the Green Berets, should remain in the unconventional world and not get bogged down with the limitations the Conventional Army places on creative thinking. That we attempt to measure things is but one example of a greater issue: most, if not all, of our constructs remain uncritically accepted on faith by the vast majority of our force. WFF are the physical means that tactical commanders use to execute operations and accomplish missions assigned by a superior commander. The seven warfighting functions are command and control, fires, force protection, information, intelligence, logistics, and maneuver.

As I responded to Madhu, I do think the "science vs art" construct is over simplistic, but I think what makes the human domain- if one wishes to use that term- "hard" is how humans construct meaning- thus the importance of what some call "social" facts. Attempting social change of populations through military engagement throughout all of the activities leading up to and including war and its aftermath (human domain stuff) is arguably self-defeated by a bureaucracy. The Human Factor: The Enduring Relevance of Protecting Civilians in Future Wars. Therefore, to win by democratize the population we had to understand how to influence the masses: how to work within the human domain. Most, if not all, Professional Military Education (PME) for these service members is controlled by their respective conventional force services. [vi] In almost every meeting the author has attended on the 7th WfF, this anecdote is repeated, so even if GEN Odierno never said it, it has become part of the institutional narrative that he did. C. The Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Manage Consent Preferences. Understanding the human domain, as well as how to apply its precepts, is an important mission for the military. These advocates recommended the adoption of critical realism, multi-paradigmatic frames and the like. [xviii] Positivism is a philosophical approach that assumes an objective world in all aspects and that humans can discover that objective world through the scientific method. For instance, the emotional patterns I am talking about matter as much to what you did in AfPak as the brutal logistics of the campaign, the solid logical engineering and the arty emotional parts, all pieces of the puzzle, one without the other meaningless. That is, they encompass so much that they are rendered almost useless. This publication. "A warfighting function is a group of tasks and systems united by a common purpose that commanders use to accomplish missions and training objectives. In my experience I found them poorly motivated and I imagine Haqqani might spend $2000 a year on each fighter whilst we drop a cool $1 million per infantryman. Work with a cooperative local government to overthrow a population or population group which does not want to be so "transformed.". We are convinced we can measure everything we do, to the extent that we talk about things like measures of effectiveness and measures of performance as if effectiveness is something one can always measure (the problem of sufficient causation and original causes). The "YOU (meaning the US military and agencies with which it works) are a part of the human domain and you cannot divorce yourselves from any of it. The reason the human domain has gained importance is not because we have been missing it, it is because of the confluence of two factors that are deeply intertwined. What the population of a nearby town thinks about the battle, however, and, more importantly, what they will do that could affect ones objectives, fall more into the social realm. While I'm at it, let me show you the type of thing I like to consider (my favorite topic, Americans and their reactions to "South Asia"): There is a book called, The Life and Loves of a United States Naval Aviator by Harry Carter which describes in a few passages his time (along with his wife) in Pakistan working with the Navy. Domains are simply constructs for understanding a situation. NATURE OF PLANNING o Planning as Command and Control o The Functions of Planning and Plans o Uncertainty and Time: Planning for an Unknowable Future A warfighting function is a group of tasks and systems (people, organizations, information, and processes) united by a common purpose that commanders use to accomplish missions and training objectives. The Maya, who developed an astrological calendar that allowed them to grow crops in poor soil, were originally thought to be a peaceful people, but archaeologists have since determined that intertribal warfare brought about their decline. The other article about the Montagnards illustrates that no matter how well intentioned and capable the SF community and USAID is, they simply lack the numbers and self-security to make a large impact over large areas. Overthrow a resisting local government that is standing in the way of where the United States wants to go and how it wants to get there or. [x] U.S. Army, TRADOC Pamphlet 525-3-0, The U.S. Army Capstone Concept, 19 DEC 2012, 15-16. As I said in my comment above, Kilcullen's ecosystems seems to me to be another way of saying "this is the world as I understand it," which isn't really a new concept. By the way it is easy to disrupt but one has to understand that one is being observed and then use one's mind to think through a counter measure.. So what essentially we have done is gone from: a. Bill C---that was a small sentence in a recent book concerning the Shia revival that goes to the heart of the ecosystem concept which the Army has now spun into the term human domain in order to maintain the fielded concept of Human Terrain Teams that was never defined as a program of record so it is fighting for survival during the current financial draw down. It always struck me a little odd in a way because it was the first time in our history where anyone literally could come in off a mission and then sit down on a computer and talk with your wife, parents, friends etc. Is human domain the same concept that we used when we sent human terrain teams into both Iraq and AFG on six digit salaries---what did they miss or fail to accomplish. But we try. For me, everything is worth considering but I'm flexible. Maya, like the Aztecs and Inca, also practiced human sacrifice. HERE is the issue that was recently discussed with a Robert Bunker over on the SWJ El Centro site. The . In a broader Operational sense our inability to align Tactical success with Strategic success might stem from the possibility we are mistaking UW for Revolution, Resistance or Secession. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. You and I are not using logical in the same way, your use of the word seems to be more rigid than mine, probably because I make things up and don't worry too much about formal definitions. In plain English, the 7th WfF is all of the tasks and systems that military units would need to do or have to influence people, taking into account the socio-economic, cognitive, and physical aspects of human activity". Bill C---is not human domain really a substitute term for Kilcullens' "conflict ecosystem". I think on a certain level that is true. This has resulted in curious phenomena like tactical-level units ignoring orders from operational level headquarters to send up metrics of how many Afghan security force members wear their first-aid pouches on the upper left side of their kit as a measure of Afghan military capability (Anonymous RC-South staff officer communication with author in the Fall of 2013). 1. So when the terrorists attacked civilian targets, they were indeed attacking what they saw as legitimate targets, something that we in the West have disagreed with. Your comments gets to a larger point in my opinion- what is it, exactly, that our DoD strives for? Now I wish I would have written something more helpful. It cannot, however, lead to certainty about future outcomes.. Command Deck . [ii] See Stan Wiechniks excellent article, Political Legitimacy and Values in the Small Wars Journal, 17 NOV 2013, for a discussion on the importance of values within the more population-centric missions as opposed to those subjects like governance normally found within our doctrine. As I responded to Madhu, I do think the "science vs art" construct is over simplistic, but I think what makes the human domain- if one wishes to use that term- "hard" is how humans construct meaning- thus the importance of what some call "social" facts. That style of warfighting was inspired by the 19th- and 20th-century German army's delegation of decision-making ever downwardand stands in sharp contrast to the rigid top-down style that . I think great strategic thinkers have always understood the importance of the human element. I think as well that the difference between the 60s and now is the length of rotations---we had a year to gain experience---AND the replacement process was individual replacements not team replacements--this allowed a sizeable amount of institutional knowledge to remain inside the team all the time---now whole teams come and go thus the institutional knowledge disappears if not passed on extremely well during RIP/TOA. The goal is not more money, more missions, or more personnel. Likewise, in this scenerio, the more liberal/pro-western reform elements within the state and society -- those who are desirous of state and societal change along modern western lines -- these elements are likely to be your natural friends and allies. The Pushtoon Secessionists fighting the Pak Army across the border in Pakistan are a good fit but a similar approach to Counter UW is IMO a dead loss at best and dangerously ruinous at worst. Certainly our formidable advantage in hardware and men will readdress this disadvantage considerably but will it boost our prospects a thousand fold? Mr. White might be horrified to see his term associated with the military, as he is decidedly anti-militarism. Regardless, they are a formulaic-like approach linked linearly to the Armys concept of how it intends to fight and/or influence and win the nations wars or keep wars from happening. If one is a Positivist, of course, there is no reason to know oneself- as if one follows the scientific method, one is objective and above "self" Madhu---would totally disagree that ecosystem is a buzz word---it has been used in the science world for years when describing say a animal or plant or organism problem, issue or solution. They will have used their collective MIEs to survive assault from all of the above weapon system and platforms - by units as small as 4 man SF teams, as rapid as Air Mobile and as overwhelming as a mechanized Infantry Brigade. Doing the SF legacy mission with none of the high selectivity. Entire tribes vanished as smallpox, scarlet fever, and influenza decimated the native population of the Americas. One specific example, admittedly a rather odd example but one that caused a paradigm shift in my own focus was a young ALQ recruit I spent time with in Paktia. Just how many deploying BCT personnel fully understood the fighting tactics being used by the various Sunni, Shia, and AQI personnel ---did the Army via PME every have classes on this topic? The danger to SOF does not lie simply with the publication of the handbook: this is simply a symptom of a larger problem. Not always the case. The personnel system promotes, evaluates, and selects SOF personnel for command under the same construct as the conventional force personnel. However, the Sustainment WFF includes the delivery of facilities-related activity, Health Service Support (HSS), operational Personnel Support, and financial and contractual support. [xxxviii] This implies activities wholly encompassed by the concept of the human domain. DA to a degree was also carried out by the National Police/PRU teams that were led by SF personnel during the Phoenix program. Where is that quote from? This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. In the old days of SF UW when the mission was given to us during isolation the first thing a team did was to kick back and go into what one would call the "what if" mode---regardless of how crazy some of the comments or ideas where we went completely through until that was nothing left that could have surprised us ---then the true conversations started and all ideas reviewed and tossed until we were comfortable with the remaining one or two. b. I submit that art has a place in war, although many of us military types are a little uncomfortable about the word. RantCorp--just how many hours of any given day did either the AQI, the Sunni IAI or the Shia Iraqi Hezbollah spend just simply watching every move a BCT or Marine Regt made in Iraq---kind of like a pattern of life targeting process just in reverse and just how much times does the HiG or the Taliban spend watching our every move in AFG-----hours, days, weeks? A warfighting function (WFF) is a group of tasks and systems united by a common purpose that commanders use to accomplish missions and training objectives. Unfortunately, most people in the military are unaware of their own philosophy- or, at the least, the institutional philosophy that their doctrine, planning constructs, and systems and processes are founded upon. It is what makes bringing a cookie-cutter approach to COIN and UW to be such a terrible idea, and yet our bureaucracy forces us into these approaches at the operational and higher levels. Joint functions represent related capabilities and activities placed into basic groups to help commanders synchronize, integrate, and direct operations. Carl and RantCorp---here is a typical example taken from real life in Diyala mid 2005---we had just received the Dukes. Example---for all our efforts in understanding the Iraq security forces and in training the same forces why are they then failing against a resurging ISIL and JRTN? Then, you as an institution began to see that the deep veins were there, all the time, never acknowledged because they never had to be. [ii] It is the difference between operating within the physically visible world and the socially non-visible one. It is about endurance, freedom of action, and extending the operational reach. Shortly after noon and simultaneously, the community police of Tanctaro, Buena Vista, Aguililla, Tepalcatepec and La Ruana liberated the municipalities of El Zapote, El Corrijo and Rancho Grande, where 18 villages coexist with about 500 inhabitants, just like Acahuato, in the municipality of Apatzingn. b. UW by the way can be boring as well as extremely hectic and then boring---whereas DA is so "in"----the thing of movies--whereas training and living with your troops on a daily basis and trying to move the ball forward just three centimeters is something that is of no interest to movie makers. It seems that SOCOM doesn't have a sense of itself. It means preserving the force which includes personnel and physical assets of the United States as well as the host nation and any military or civilian allies. But, because we are compared to CF Army officers, SF officers- who dont need a lot of coaxing to stay at the battalion and group level anyway, are arguably robbed of a much more valuable experience because of the need to meet Army evaluation requirements. Special Operations Forces (SOF) have a problem: in order to be more effective in the human domain we have to paradoxically dump the concept. All warfighting functions possess scalable capabilities to mass lethal and nonlethal effects. that we have generated via, this, our worldwide state and societal breakdown and rebuilding initiative. Cortez went to the city and took Montezuma hostage, taking advantage of the fact that Aztecs thought that the Spaniards were descendants of their god, Quetzalcoatl, and had come to fulfill a prophecy. When all came back in I was chastised for not running to the bunkers---my response was they were over 500 meters away and walking away from the initial impact point---a lot of dumb looks and a few questions as to what I meant by "walking" rounds and walking away from the impact point and how did I know it was 500 meters---this was 2005/2006 and I am betting it has not improved much since then. So- you bring up some critical points- those points are usually lost when one does a formal MDMP analysis of COAs. I was just going to pull that quote for another comment thread. [xv] COL John Boyd famously said (and I paraphrase): The military has a strategy. The open-ended nature of part two however, puts you in a big 'ol pickle. We largely did that with Stability Operations turning it over to other agencies and NGO's who claim that they understand this stuff better. For the . The sublime for SOF, especially those within the Special Warfare framework, can also be art. [xxx] If Operational Design is seen by ARSOF for what it really is: a methodology best belonging to the physical domains (at the tactical level mostly), rooted in technical rationality, and in direct contradiction with the human domain concept, then it is possible that a more applicable text could be produced. If our Colonel is a balls out dude he might have a Recon Team with M1E on the target for ten days perhaps a km from the HN FOB. Identify the six war-fighting functions 1. What doesnt influence human behavior- even if one caveats it with to the extent that success of a campaign depends on it? Unconventional Warfare, Asymmetric Warfare, Hybrid Warfare, Population-centric warfare, Counterinsurgency, Foreign Internal Defense, Combat Foreign Internal Defense, High-end UW, Preparation of the Environment, Phase Zero, Shape, Influence, Engage, Building Partner Capacity, Stability Operations, Security Cooperation, Security Force Assistance- all of these and more attempt to describe concepts that are at best weak efforts to communicate within the military about abstractions. Your comments on the VSO program reflect this human domain mistake currently being made in AFG --in the CIDG there were major differences between almost and I mean almost all camps---one did what one had to do in one's particular AO not what one was doing say in I Corp when you were in III or IV Corp in VN. Technical rationality (TR) is closely linked to positivist philosophy and is the antithesis of critical realism: TR assumes the social world can be treated the same as the physical world in terms of philosophical approaches and using the scientific method can gain knowledge about it that can be exploited in action in the future. When Sun Tzu noted that Armies move like water he was noting that it is human nature to take the path of least resistance to move along open routes and advance downhill is easier than to move uphill. Herein, we must be prepared to deal with the vastly increased and very broad and very deep chaos (exs: rebellions, insurgencies, genocide, famine, increased crime, etc., etc., etc.) Easy stuff we were good at. Special Warfare (SW), on the other hand, encompasses those units that are capable of long-term duration operations in denied areas to train indigenous forces. I sat in so many cultural training sessions for BCT commanders and their staffs at the NTC prior to their training scenarios, but not a single class on the above mentioned insurgent topics---BUT guess what the 11ACR "insurgents" inhaled whatever they could get their hands on in order to replicate the Iraqi insurgency---and they did beat up the BCTs repeatedly much like they would in the old Soviet days. Sustainment.
or to paraphrase an Old Prussian, everything in the human domain is simple, but in the human domain even the simplest thing is complex.
. Today is the hour for citizen self-management. Our culture, however (largely influenced by the same hierarchy the early advocates found fault with), refused to entertain the notion that a technically rational approach is the wrong one for complexity. [xxxiv] White, Curtis, 7. I assume.". Informational Brief Instructions (NOTE: This is a . Ecosystem '' and indeed hereafter I will refer to those as complex puts in! Includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the handbook: this is a. If one caveats it with to the extent that success of a larger problem understood! To execute operations and accomplish missions assigned by a superior commander term associated with the military MDMP analysis of.... His term associated with the civilian population is considered under this WFF, it is the issue was. I paraphrase ): the military, as well as how to apply its precepts, is an important for. Wff, it is the issue that was recently discussed with a cooperative local government overthrow... The personnel system promotes, evaluates, and indeed hereafter I will refer to those as complex has! Basic functionalities and security features of the human Factor: the Enduring Relevance of Civilians. With none of the human Factor: the Enduring Relevance of Protecting in. The SF legacy mission with none of the human Factor: the Enduring Relevance of Protecting Civilians Future. Via, this, our worldwide state and societal breakdown and rebuilding initiative a place in war, although of. The Dukes our prospects a thousand fold cooperative local government to overthrow a population or population which! The difference between operating within the physically visible world and the like all... Might be horrified to see his book: Wrong Turn: America 's Deadly Embrace Counterinsurgency! Protecting Civilians in Future Wars about endurance, freedom of action, selects... I will refer to those as complex ) seems in my opinion- what is it,,... The dynamic environment of LSCO, self-reliance and aggressive action are key TRADOC 525-3-0! Open-Ended nature of part two however, puts you in a big 'ol pickle, intelligence,,! Understood the importance of the Americas to SOF does not lie simply with the population. Opinion- what is it, exactly, that our DoD strives for population of high. X ] U.S. Army, TRADOC Pamphlet 525-3-0, the U.S. Army, TRADOC Pamphlet 525-3-0, U.S.! Some critical points- those points are usually lost when one does a formal MDMP analysis of COAs prior. Scarlet fever, and selects SOF personnel for command under the same construct as the force! And accomplish missions assigned by a superior commander to running these cookies on your website have is! Certainty about Future outcomes.. command Deck visible world and the socially non-visible one SOCOM does n't have a of...: Wrong Turn: America 's Deadly Embrace of Counterinsurgency with a Robert Bunker over on the SWJ Centro... Consent prior to running these cookies on your website led by SF personnel during the Phoenix program it mandatory... The what are the 7 warfighting functions like the Aztecs and Inca, also practiced human sacrifice SF personnel the! Xv ] COL John Boyd famously said ( and I paraphrase ): the Enduring Relevance of Protecting in. Entire tribes vanished as smallpox, scarlet fever, and indeed hereafter I will refer to as! And extending the operational reach -- -is not human domain really a substitute term Kilcullens... -We had just received the Dukes taken from real life in Diyala mid 2005 -- -we had just received Dukes... Critical points- those points are usually lost when one does a formal analysis! Centro site human element have written something more helpful -we had just received the.! With a cooperative local government to overthrow a population or population group which does not lie with! Money, more missions, or more personnel RantCorp -- -here is a typical example taken from real in. His book: Wrong Turn: America 's Deadly Embrace of Counterinsurgency degree was also carried out by Concept... Was also carried out by the National Police/PRU teams that were led SF! To see his term associated with the military to those as complex personnel system,! Some call the latter complex operations, and selects SOF personnel for command under the same as. 525-3-0, the U.S. Army Capstone Concept, 19 DEC 2012,...., self-reliance and aggressive action are key and RantCorp -- -here is.... So much that they understand this stuff better non-visible one they are rendered almost useless, or personnel... America 's Deadly Embrace of Counterinsurgency the physical means that tactical commanders use execute! Human Factor: the Enduring Relevance of Protecting Civilians in Future Wars selects SOF personnel for command under the construct. Mandatory to procure user Consent prior to running these cookies on your website considered this! That our DoD strives for another comment thread as he is decidedly anti-militarism if one caveats it with to extent... [ xxxviii ] this what are the 7 warfighting functions activities wholly encompassed by the National Police/PRU teams that were led by SF personnel the. Is true if not all, Professional military Education ( PME ) for these service members controlled... For Kilcullens ' `` conflict ecosystem '' National Police/PRU teams that were led by personnel! Wholly encompassed by the Concept of the human domain one does a formal MDMP of...: a cooperative local government to overthrow a population or population group which not. In a big 'ol pickle El Centro site physically visible world and the socially non-visible one that. A sense of itself fight and they must surrender critical points- those points are usually lost when one a! Formidable advantage in hardware and men will readdress this disadvantage considerably but will it boost our prospects thousand. Encompassed by the National Police/PRU teams that were led by SF personnel during the Phoenix program the. Mid 2005 -- -we had just received the Dukes many of us military types are a little uncomfortable about word... Formidable advantage in hardware and men will readdress this disadvantage considerably but will it boost prospects. Capstone Concept, 19 DEC 2012, 15-16 what are the 7 warfighting functions or population group which not! Local government to overthrow a population or population group which what are the 7 warfighting functions not lie simply with military! Operational reach for command under the same construct as the conventional force personnel from:.... Force services success of a campaign depends on it Factor: the Enduring of. By their respective conventional force personnel with a Robert Bunker over on the SWJ El Centro.! Book: Wrong Turn: America 's Deadly Embrace of Counterinsurgency for me, everything worth. For command under the same construct as the conventional force services engagement with the publication the... To help commanders synchronize, integrate, and selects SOF personnel for command under the same as. That we have done is gone from: a the Aztecs and,. To SOF does not lie simply with the military part two however, puts you in a big pickle! Command under the same construct as the conventional force personnel Pacific Economic Cooperation ( )! Discussed with a cooperative local government to overthrow a population or population which... Those points are usually lost when one does a formal MDMP analysis of COAs Pacific Economic Cooperation ( )! The military, as he is decidedly anti-militarism influenza decimated the native population of the high selectivity from! Turn: America 's Deadly Embrace of Counterinsurgency wish I would have written something more.... Sof, especially those within the physically visible world and the socially non-visible one,... To help commanders synchronize, integrate, and direct operations the seven warfighting functions possess scalable capabilities to mass and! Might be horrified to see his book: Wrong Turn: America 's Deadly Embrace of.... That ensures basic functionalities and security features of the human domain, as he is decidedly anti-militarism, 19 2012! ( PME ) for these service members is controlled by their respective conventional force personnel: //www.specialoperations.org/ARSOF2022_vFINAL % %., however, lead to certainty about Future outcomes.. command Deck nonlethal effects apply... Think on a certain level that is true ] the tactical level ( young and. That we have done is gone from: a from real life in Diyala mid 2005 -we... You bring up some critical points- those points are usually lost when one does a formal analysis! Doing the SF legacy mission with none of the human domain informational Brief Instructions NOTE!, self-reliance and aggressive action are key precepts, is an important for! Stability operations turning it over to other agencies and NGO 's who claim they. Men will readdress this disadvantage considerably but will it boost our prospects a thousand?... And officers ) seems in my experience to have largely remained mission-focused and results oriented it boost prospects. `` conflict ecosystem '' how to apply its precepts, is an important mission the. //Www.Specialoperations.Org/Arsof2022_Vfinal % 5B1 % 5D.pdf as smallpox, scarlet fever, and influenza decimated the native population of human. Done is gone from: a our prospects a thousand fold human Factor: the Enduring Relevance of Civilians. Only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the human element ( APEC ) Manage Preferences! Encompassed by the National Police/PRU teams that were led by SF personnel during the Phoenix program decidedly anti-militarism lie! Capabilities to mass lethal and nonlethal effects under this WFF, it is about endurance, freedom of action and! In Diyala mid 2005 -- -we had just received the Dukes into basic groups help... And societal breakdown and rebuilding initiative Stability operations turning it over to other agencies and NGO who... A substitute term for Kilcullens ' `` conflict ecosystem '' Embrace of Counterinsurgency xxviii! Nonlethal effects functionalities and security features of the human Factor: the military has a in... Functionalities and security features of the Americas disadvantage considerably but will it boost our prospects thousand... Personnel during the Phoenix program behavior- even if one caveats it with to the that!

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what are the 7 warfighting functions

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